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Flora Fauna


The State of  Manipur is rich in her plant resources distributed among   various  agro-climatic  zones . Invariably , the rich flora meets the day to day needs of the people living therein. In the Senapati district lots of species of plants are found. Most of them are very useful to the people and use as MEDICINAL plants. Some of the resource plants found in this district are given below :
 Abrus precatorius Linn .  (local name - Chaning)
A twining shrub. Scattered all over.
 Uses :-
Seeds are Purgative , emetic , tonic,aphrodisiac- used in nervous disorders and cattle poisoning . roots possess glycyrrhizin an d useful in coughs, colds and colic complaints . Paste of seeds is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of shoulder joints and paralysis . Seeds are highly poisonous . Roots are used for gonorrhoea , jaundice and haemoglobinuric bile . Powdered seeds are said to disturb the uterine functions and prevent conception in women. The oil extracted from seeds is said to promote the growth of human hair.
Acacia Pruinescens Kurz. (local name - Te-bam)
      - A large woody climber armed with more or less recurved prickles.
Uses:- Plant is emetic, expectorant , and used as a substitute for senega; useful in brounchitis, pneumonia and asthma. Root is cathartic. Leaves are laxative,usedin scabies and snake-bites . The herb may cause gastrointestimal irritation. Plant contain contains a cyanogenetic glucoside and alkaloid acalyphine . In Homoeopahy , the herb is used against severe cough associated with bleeding from the lungs (haemoptysis) and insipient pthisis.Fresh juice of leaves is useful in case of croup.
Adiantum aethiopicum Linn.
(local name - Mayur pambi , family - Adiantaceae)
- A fern
Uses :- Decoction of the fern is used by the South Africans as an abortifacient; also possess emetic and astringent properties. Infusion of fronds is used as emollient in cough and diseases of chest.

Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn . (local name - Hansraj , family - Maidenhair fern)
- A fern.
Uses:- Plant is used as a pectoral , demulcent , expectorant and tonic. Boiled in wine it is given in case of hard tumours of spleen , liver and other viscera.

Adiantum flabellulatum Linn. 
- A fern
Uses:- Rhizomes are used for cough and as an anthelmintic ; also used against grips .
 Adiantum incisum Forsk. (local name - Mayur-pambi)
 - A fern
Uses:- Used in hemicrania and diabetes .
Agrimonia eupatoria Linn. ( family - Rosaceae AGRIMONY)
- A hairy herb with a perennial and woody rootstock .
Uses:- Plant is usedas an astringent, anthelmintic, diuretic and tonic. Yields an essential oil which is active against Bacillus subtilis and  Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus. Vitamin K is also reported to be present.
Ainsliaea angustifolia Hook.f.& Thoms ( Compositae: Asteraceae)
- A small herb . Common in the forest clearing.
Uses:- Smashed leaves are applied to old wounds for healing.
Aporusa dioica Muell.-Arg (family - Euphorbiaceae)
- An evergreen tree.
Uses :- Ethanolic extract of stem and leaves showed respiratory and cardiovascular activities .
Artemisia maritima Linn  (local name - Leibakngou-manba , Compositae - Asteraceae , family - WORM SEED )
- A scandent shrub.
Uses:- Leaf-extract is given in acute stomach pain . Smashed leaves are applied to abdomen and forehead as poultice in pains . Smashed shoots are thrown on water for trapping fishes .Flowers give the commercial santonin for eradicating worms from stomach ; leaf-infusion is used in intermittent fevers . Bark is antiseptic. Decoction is used as a febrifuge.
Bauhinia tenuiflora Watt ex Clarke ( local name - Chingthao)
- A large cirrhose climber
Uses:- Bark is used in diarrhoea.
Begonia palmata D.Don ( local name- Banhang , family-Begoniaceae)
- A small herb. Fairly common as an undergrowth in shaded regions of the forests.
Uses :- Plant-juice is poisonous to leeches and used to kill them when found in the nostrils of animals . Extract of succulent stalks is used for veneral diseases.
Cephalostachyam capitatum Munro (Gramineae; Poaceae)
-A bushy bamboo.
Uses:- Infusion of leaves is given as tonic , also anthelmintic , stomachic and carminative.
Cirsium sinense C.B.Clarke
- An erect herb.
Uses:- Roots are used in flatulence : externally for ulcers and abscesses. Stems and leaves are antiscorbutic.
Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp. ( family - Verbenaceae)
- A shrub with foetid smell.
Uses :- Roots with bark is given in bronchitis and asthma . Leaf-juice is given to eradicate threadworms. Roots is used in asthma , cough and scrofulous affections. Leaves are vermifuge . Wood is tied around the neck against various ailments . The smell of the wood is believed to cure many diseases of the children.
Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp. (family- Verbenaceae)

   A shrub with foetid smell.
Uses:- Leaves are used for rheumatic pains by the Khasis and Jaintias of Meghalaya.
Curcuma aromatica Salisb.  (Local name – Lam-yaingang ,Family- WILD TURMERIC)
- A rhizomatous , aromatic herb.
Uses :- Rhizomes are tonic , carminative ; enter into compositionused for bruises , contusions and sprains ; also used in snake-bite.
Cynodon dactylon Pers.  (Local name – Tingthou ,Family- Gramineae:Poaceae DHUB GRASS)

     A perennial grass .
Uses :- Extracted juice of the grass is applied to fresh cuts or injuries for stopping bleeding . Women suffering from execesive uterian bleeding are given fresh juice about 50cc along with sugar once daily for three days as remedy.Decoction of roots is given in dropsy and secondary syphilis , Plant juice is used in injuries , anasarca , hysteria ,epilepsy and insanity ; also astringent in chronic diarrhoea and dysentery ; useful in catarrh of ophthalmia . Rhizome is used in genito- urinary troubles .
Daphne papyracea Wall.ex Steud. (family – Thymelaeaceae)
         A shrub .
Uses :- Plant is febrifuge , bitter and purgative . Sweet scented flowers are with antimicrobial activity . Roots are used as medicines for different diseases by the tribes of Eastern  India.
Dicliptera roxburghiana Nees (Family – Acanthaceae)
         A diffused herb with woody rootstock .
Uses:- Plant is used as a tonic.
Diospyros Lancaefolia Roxb.(family – Ebenaceae)
         A middle sized tree.
Uses:- Infusion of leaves is prescribed for bath of anaemic children by the Bondos of Orissa.
Elatostema lineolatum Wight (family – Urticaceae)
         An undershrub .
Uses:- Leaf-paste is applied to cuts by the Karbis of Assam.
Eleutherococcus cissifolius ( Family -  araliaceae )
         A small tree.
Uses:- Leaves are used for stomach disorders.
Elsholtzia ciliata(Thumb) Hyland
-An aromatic herb.
Uses:- Leaf-extract is prescribed in stomach disorders.
Equisetum arvense Linn ( Family -Equisetaceae FIELD HORSETAIL)
Uses:- Source of Herba Equiseti , used as a diuretic ; has haemostatic properties , considered useful in dropsy , gravel and kidney affection . the ash of the plant is useful in acidity of the stomach and in dyspepsia.
Eucalyptus citriodora Hook . (Local name – Nasik Family – Myrtaceae LEMON SCENTED EUCALYPT )
- A big tree.
Uses :- Leaves are used as an ingredient for the preparation of an indigenous hair-lotion(Chinghi). Volatile oil vapour is antimicrobial.
Eupatorium birmanicum DC (local name- Langthrei , Compositae ; Asteraceae )

       An undershrub.
Uses:- leaf-juice is applied to the body in burning sensation . Leaf extract with milk is a remedy for leucorrhoea. The extract with honey is given in stomach ulcers.
Eupatorium cannabinum Linn (Family – HEMP AGRIMONY)
-A herb
Uses:- Plant is diuretic , antiscorbutic , cathartic, deobstruent ,given in visceral obstructions , in swelling of leg , intermittent fevers , for fomenting sores , in influenza and as purgative .
Eupatorium odoratum Linn . ( Local name – kambilei)
-An undershrub.
Uses:- Leaf-juice with salt is treated as poison ; fresh juice is given externally in gonorrhoea. Plant is used as fish-poison.
Euphorbia hirta Linn . (Local Name – Pakhamba-maton)

  A Trailing herb.
Uses :- Plant is used in worm diseases of children . Plant-juice is givenin dysentery , bowel complaints , cough and colic; plant decoction is used in bronchial affections and asthma . Latex is applied to warts . Plant is also used in diseases of genito-urinary tract.
Eurya japonica Thunb.  (local name –Baunra , family – Theaceae)
         A shrub.
Uses:- Leaves are used as poultice on skin eruption.
Fleurya interrupta Gaudich. (Local name – Santhak , family Urticaceae)
         an erect herb with stinging hairs .
:-Hairs cause dermatitis ; leaf-paste is applied to carbuncle;root extract is diuretic.
Galinsoga parviflora Cav. (local name – Hameng shampakpi , Compositae – Asteraceae)
-An erect herb.
Uses:- Leaves with those of Ageratum conyzoides , Drymaria cordata and ginger are made into a paste and applied as a remedy for snake-bite by the khasis and Jaintias of Meghalaya.
Galium rotundifolium Linn.  (Rubiaceae)
-A diffuse herb.
Uses:- Plant is used for colic ,sore  throat and chest complaints.
Geranium nepalense Sweet(local name- Bhanda , Geraniaceae NEPAL GERANIUM)

         A perennial pubesecent or  softly hairy herb.
Uses:- Plant is astringent ,used in certain renal diseases . Roots contain a red colouring matter and are used for colouring medicinal oils.
Glochidion oblatum Hk.f.(Family –Euphorbiaceae)
         A middle sized tree.
Uses:- Extract of stem and root is given in dysentery.
Gossypium arboreum Linn.(local name – Lashing , family – Malvaceae)
         This cotton is grown in jhum cultivation.
Uses :- Flowers are used in scabies and skin diseases . Seeds are used in hydrocele. Seeds are expectorant ,demulcent and employed for abortion . This is used in headache and considered nervine tonic . Leaf-juice is used in scorpion-sting and snake-bite. Roots are used in fever . Seeds are also used in gonorrhoea,gleet,cystitis and catarrh.
Grangea maderaspatana Poir. (local name – Leibungou , Compositae ; Asteraceae)
         A herb,inflorescence yellow.
Uses :- Decoction is used for giving bath in case of  eczema and other skin diseases. Infusion of leaves is considered stoma chic , antispasmodic and deobstruent . Leaf-juice is employed as instillation for earache.
Gynura cusimba (D.Don)Moore (local name – terapaibi , Compositae ;Asteraceae)
         A large succulent herb.
Uses:- Juice expressed from the succulent stem and leaves is applied to fresh wounds for stopping bleeding and quick healing . Leaf-paste is applied to forehead to cure headache.
Hedera nepalensis Koch. ( local name – Lablab, family – Araliaceae NEPAL IVY)
- An  evergreen woody climber.
Uses:- Fruits are stimulant, diaphoretic, cathartic; useful in febrile disorders. Berries and seeds contain glycoside
a-hederin which is intensely haemolytic and acts as an irritant to the alimentary canal, causes vaso-constriction, lowers blood pressure and slows the heart . Leaf decoction destroys hair lice ; infusion of berry is used in rheumatism; gum is emmenagogue.


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